## What is multiplication?

The process of finding out the product between two or more numbers is called multiplication. The result thus obtained is called the **product**. Suppose you buy 6 pens on one day and 6 pens on the next day. Total pens you bought are now 2 times 6 or 6 + 6 = 12.

This can also be written as 2 x 6 = 12

Not the symbol used for multiplication. The symbol (x) is generally used to represent multiplication. Other common symbols that are used for multiplication are the asterisk (*) and dot (.)

Now let us understand what is a multiplication table?

## What is a multiplication table?

A multiplication table is a list of multiples of a number. In other words, it shows the product of one number with other numbers. So, how do we get a multiplication table? We can obtain a **multiplication table** by multiplying the given number with whole numbers.

## Importance of Multiplication Tables

Multiplication is the main tool for many forms of maths such as algebra, calculus, equations and other arithmetic operations. So, why is it important to learn multiplication tables? So, is it to increase the speed of calculations only or there are other benefits as well? Let us find out.

Other than helping in faster calculations, there are a number of benefits of learning mathematical tables, some of which are –

- Multiplication Tables support the mathematical learning of a person.
- Learning multiplication tables helps you get a stronghold of the various properties of multiplication.
- By starting with smaller multiplication tables and gradually building up, we get to learn other multiplication tables in an easier manner.
- Learning multiplication tables does not only help in solving multiplication problems. They help in improving the efficiency and speed of doing addition, subtraction and division as well.
- Multiplication tables help in solving real life applications.
- Perhaps most importantly, memorising multiplication tables will give you confidence in your own skills.

Let us now learn the multiplication table from 2 to 20.

## Multiplication Table of 2

2 × 1 = 2 | 2 × 6 = 12 |

2 × 2 = 4 | 2 × 7 = 14 |

2 × 3 = 6 | 2 × 8 = 16 |

2 × 4 = 8 | 2 × 9 = 18 |

2 × 5 = 10 | 2 × 10 = 20 |

2 x 11 = 22 | 2 x 12 = 24 |

2 x 13 = 26 | 2 x 14 = 28 |

2 x 15 = 30 | 2 x 16 = 32 |

2 x 17 = 34 | 2 x 18 = 36 |

2 x 19 = 38 | 2 x 20 = 40 |

## Multiplication Table of 3

3 × 1 = 3 | 3 × 6 = 18 |

3 × 2 = 6 | 3 × 7 = 21 |

3 × 3 = 9 | 3 × 8 = 24 |

3 × 4 = 12 | 3 × 9 = 27 |

3 × 5 = 15 | 3 × 10 = 30 |

3 x 11 = 33 | 3 x 12 = 36 |

3 x 13 = 39 | 3 x 14 = 42 |

3 x 15 = 45 | 3 x 16 = 48 |

3 x 17 = 51 | 3 x 18 = 54 |

3 x 19 = 57 | 3 x 20 = 60 |

## Multiplication Table of 4

4 × 1 = 4 | 4 × 6 = 24 |

4 × 2 = 8 | 4 × 7 = 28 |

4 × 3 = 12 | 4 × 8 = 32 |

4 × 4 = 16 | 4 × 9 = 36 |

4 × 5 = 20 | 4 × 10 = 40 |

4 x 11 = 44 | 4 x 12 = 48 |

4 x 13 = 52 | 4 x 14 = 56 |

4 x 15 = 60 | 4 x 16 = 64 |

4 x 17 = 68 | 4 x 18 = 72 |

4 x 19 = 76 | 4 x 20 = 80 |

## Multiplication Table of 5

5 × 1 = 5 | 5 × 6 = 30 |

5 × 2 = 10 | 5 × 7 = 35 |

5 × 3 = 15 | 5 × 8 = 40 |

5 × 4 = 20 | 5 × 9 = 45 |

5 × 5 = 25 | 5 × 10 = 50 |

5 x 11 = 55 | 5 x 12 = 60 |

5 x 13 = 65 | 5 x 14 = 70 |

5 x 15 = 75 | 5 x 16 = 80 |

5 x 17 = 85 | 5 x 18 = 90 |

5 x 19 = 95 | 5 x 20 = 100 |

## Multiplication Table of 6

6 × 1 = 6 | 6 ×11 = 66 |

6 × 2 = 12 | 6 × 12 = 72 |

6 × 3 = 18 | 6× 13 = 78 |

6 × 4 = 24 | 6 × 14 = 84 |

6 × 5 = 30 | 6 × 15 = 90 |

6 × 6 = 36 | 6 × 16 = 96 |

6 × 7 = 42 | 6 × 17 = 102 |

6 × 8 = 48 | 6× 18 = 108 |

6 × 9 = 54 | 6 × 19 = 114 |

6 × 10 = 60 | 6 × 20 = 120 |

## Multiplication Table of 7

7 × 1 = 7 | 7 × 6 = 42 |

7 × 2 = 14 | 7 × 7 = 49 |

7 × 3 = 21 | 7 × 8 = 56 |

7 × 4 = 28 | 7 × 9 = 63 |

7 × 5 = 35 | 7 × 10 = 70 |

7 X 11 = 77 | 7 X 12 = 84 |

7 X 13 = 91 | 7 X 14 = 98 |

7 X 15 = 105 | 7 X 16 = 112 |

7 X 17 = 119 | 7 X 18 = 126 |

7 X 19 = 133 | 7 X 20 = 140 |

## Multiplication Table of 8

8 × 1 = 8 | 8 × 6 = 48 |

8 × 2 = 16 | 8 × 7 = 56 |

8 × 3 = 24 | 8 × 8 = 64 |

8 × 4 = 32 | 8 × 9 = 72 |

8 × 5 = 40 | 8 × 10 = 80 |

8 x 11 = 88 | 8 x 12 = 96 |

8 x 13 = 104 | 8 x 14 = 112 |

8 x 15 = 120 | 8 x 16 = 128 |

8 x 17 = 136 | 8 x 18 = 144 |

8 x 19 = 152 | 8 x 20 = 160 |

## Multiplication Table of 9

9 × 1 = 9 | 9 × 6 = 54 |

9 × 2 = 18 | 9 × 7 = 63 |

9 × 3 = 27 | 9 × 8 = 72 |

9× 4 = 36 | 9 × 9 = 81 |

9 × 5 = 45 | 9× 10 = 90 |

9 x11 = 99 | 9 x 12 = 108 |

9 x13 = 117 | 9 x14 = 126 |

9 x 15 = 135 | 9 x 16 = 144 |

9 x 17 = 153 | 9 x 18 = 162 |

9 x 19 = 171 | 9 x 20 = 180 |

## Multiplication Table of 10

10 × 1 = 10 | 10 × 6 = 60 |

10 × 2 = 20 | 10 × 7 = 70 |

10 × 3 = 30 | 10 × 8 = 80 |

10 × 4 = 40 | 10 × 9 = 90 |

10 × 5 = 50 | 10 × 10 = 100 |

10 x 11 = 110 | 10 x 12 = 120 |

10 x 13 = 130 | 10 x 14 = 140 |

10 x 15 = 150 | 10 x 16 = 160 |

10 x 17 = 170 | 10 x 18 = 180 |

10 x 19 = 190 | 10 x 20 = 200 |

## Multiplication Table of 11

11 × 1 = 11 | 11 × 6 = 66 |

11 × 2 = 22 | 11 × 7 = 77 |

11 × 3 = 33 | 11 × 8 = 88 |

11 × 4 = 44 | 11 × 9 = 99 |

11 × 5 = 55 | 11 × 10 = 110 |

11 x 11 = 121 | 11 x 12 = 132 |

11 x 13 = 143 | 11 x 14 = 154 |

11 x 15 = 165 | 11 x 16 = 176 |

11 x 17 = 187 | 11 x 18 = 198 |

11 x 19 = 209 | 11 x 20 = 220 |

## Multiplication Table of 12

2 × 1 = 12 | 12 × 6 = 72 |

12 × 2 = 24 | 12 × 7 = 84 |

12 × 3 = 36 | 12 × 8 = 96 |

12 × 4 = 48 | 12 × 9 = 108 |

12 × 5 = 60 | 12 × 10 = 120 |

12 x 11 = 132 | 12 x 12 = 144 |

12 x 13 = 156 | 12 x 14 = 168 |

12 x 15 = 180 | 12 x 16 = 192 |

12 x 17 = 204 | 12 x 18 = 216 |

12 x 19 = 228 | 12 x 20 = 240 |

## Multiplication Table of 13

13 × 1 = 13 | 13 × 6 = 78 |

13 × 2 = 26 | 13 × 7 = 91 |

13 × 3 = 39 | 13 × 8 = 104 |

13 × 4 = 52 | 13 × 9 = 117 |

13 × 5 = 65 | 13 × 10 = 130 |

13 x 11 = 143 | 13 x 12 = 156 |

13 x 13 = 169 | 13 x 14 = 182 |

13 x 15 = 195 | 13 x 16 = 208 |

13 x 17 = 221 | 13 x 18 = 234 |

13 x 19 = 247 | 13 x 20 = 260 |

## Multiplication Table of 14

14 × 1 = 14 | 14 × 6 = 84 |

14 × 2 = 28 | 14 × 7 = 98 |

14 × 3 = 42 | 14 × 8 = 112 |

14 × 4 = 56 | 14 × 9 = 126 |

14 × 5 = 70 | 14 × 10 = 140 |

14 x 11 = 154 | 14 x 12 = 168 |

14 x 13 = 182 | 14 x 14 = 196 |

14 x 15 = 210 | 14 x 16 = 224 |

14 x 17 = 238 | 14 x 18 = 252 |

14 x 19 = 266 | 14 x 20 = 280 |

## Multiplication Table of 15

15 × 1 = 15 | 15 × 6 = 90 |

15 × 2 = 30 | 15 × 7 = 105 |

15 × 3 = 45 | 15 × 8 = 120 |

15 × 4 = 60 | 15 × 9 = 135 |

15 × 5 = 75 | 15 × 10 = 150 |

15 x 11 = 165 | 15 x 12 = 180 |

15 x 13 = 195 | 15 x 14 = 210 |

15 x 15 = 225 | 15 x 16 = 240 |

15 x 17 = 255 | 15 x 18 = 270 |

15 x 19 = 285 | 15 x 20 = 300 |

## Multiplication Table of 16

16 × 1 = 16 | 16 × 6 = 96 |

16 × 2 = 32 | 16 × 7 = 112 |

16 × 3 = 48 | 16 × 8 = 128 |

16 × 4 = 64 | 16 × 9 = 144 |

16 × 5 = 80 | 16 × 10 = 160 |

16 x 11 = 176 | 16 x 12 = 192 |

16 x 13 = 208 | 16 x 14 = 224 |

16 x 15 = 240 | 16 x 16 = 256 |

16 x 17 = 272 | 16 x 18 = 288 |

16 x 19 = 304 | 16 x 20 = 320 |

## Multiplication Table of 17

7 × 1 = 17 | 17 × 6 = 102 |

17 × 2 = 34 | 17 × 7 = 119 |

17 × 3 = 51 | 17 × 8 = 136 |

17 × 4 = 68 | 17 × 9 = 153 |

17 × 5 = 85 | 17 × 10 = 170 |

17 x 11 = 187 | 17 x 12 = 204 |

17 x 13 = 221 | 17 x 14 = 238 |

17 x 15 = 255 | 17 x 16 = 272 |

17 x 17 = 289 | 17 x 18 = 306 |

17 x 19 = 323 | 17 x 20 = 340 |

## Multiplication Table of 18

8 × 1 = 18 | 18 × 6 = 108 |

18 × 2 = 36 | 18 × 7 = 126 |

18 × 3 = 54 | 18 × 8 = 144 |

18 × 4 = 72 | 18 × 9 = 162 |

18 × 5 = 90 | 18 × 10 = 180 |

18 x 11 = 198 | 18 x 12 = 216 |

18 x 13 = 234 | 18 x 14 = 252 |

18 x 15 = 270 | 18 x 16 = 288 |

18 x 17 = 306 | 18 x 18 = 324 |

18 x 19 = 342 | 18 x 20 = 360 |

## Multiplication Table of 19

19 × 1 = 19 | 19 × 6 = 114 |

19 × 2 = 38 | 19 × 7 = 133 |

19 × 3 = 57 | 19 × 8 = 152 |

19 × 4 = 76 | 19 × 9 = 171 |

19 × 5 = 95 | 19 × 10 = 190 |

19 x 11 = 209 | 19 x 12 = 228 |

19 x 13 = 247 | 19 x 14 = 266 |

19 x 15 = 285 | 19 x 16 = 304 |

19 x 17 = 323 | 19 x 18 = 342 |

19 x 19 = 361 | 19 x 20 = 380 |

## Multiplication Table of 20

20 × 1 = 20 | 20 × 6 = 120 |

20 × 2 = 40 | 20 × 7 = 140 |

20 × 3 = 60 | 20 × 8 = 160 |

20 × 4 = 80 | 20 × 9 = 180 |

20 × 5 = 100 | 20 × 10 = 200 |

20 x 11 = 220 | 20 x 12 = 240 |

20 x 13 = 260 | 20 x 14 = 280 |

20 x 15 = 300 | 20 x 16 = 320 |

20 x 17 = 340 | 20 x 18 = 360 |

20 x 19 = 380 | 20 x 20 = 400 |

## Solved Examples

Anna wants to buy 15 chocolates. If the cost of one chocolate is 10 pence, using the multiplication table of 15, estimate the cost of 10 pencils in pounds?

**Solution**

We have been given that Anna wants to buy 15 chocolates. It has also been given that the cost of one chocolate is 10 pence. We need to find out the cost of 10 pencils using the multiplication table of 15.

Now let us check the multiplication table of 15. We can see that 15 x 10 = 150.

Therefore, the cost of 10 chocolates is 150 pence.

We know that 1 pound = 100 pence.

**Therefore, the cost of 10 chocolates = ****£1.5**

Henry wants to give each of his 12 friends, 5 pencils each. Using the multiplication table of 5, find how many pencils does he need to buy for the same.

**Solution **

We have been given that Henry wants to give each of his 12 friends, 5 pencils each.

Let us check the multiplication table of 5.

We have,

5 x 12 = 60

**Therefore, Henry needs to buy 60 pencils so as to give each of his 12 friends, 5 pencils each.**

Can this problem be solved using any other multiplication table? Let us find out.

We know that multiplication satisfies the commutative property, which means that for any two numbers, a and b,

a x b = b x a

This means that 5 x 12 = 12 x 5

If we look at the multiplication tables of 5 and 12 we will see that both 5 x 12 and 12 x 5 give us the same answer, i.e. 60. Hence, we can use the table of 12 as well to solve this problem.

This implies that we need not learn all the tables individually, as the tables have repeated calculations of two numbers. Hence, by learning just a few multiplication tables, we can master the art of multiplication.

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